In 1,644 in full war of secession Portuguese occurs battle of Montijo. The Portuguese attempt to conquer Badajoz, but not to achieve target Montijo and Puebla de la Calzada, ravaging both locations. Until independence from Portugal in 1668, produced continuous looting by both Spanish and Portuguese.

The Duke of Braganza, later John IV of Portugal, supported by France, he led an insurrection against the Spanish crown and his monarch Philip IV in 1640. One year after he was proclaimed king of Portugal, starting a contest that, as in the past, resulting in serious consequences for the land and people of Extremadura.

The Portuguese attempted without success, to conquer Badajoz. Faced with the impossibility of taking the square, it broke along the Guadiana razing as found on the road, among other places, the town of Montijo. The army was commanded by General Mathias Albuquerque, Count of Alegrete. That finding opposition decided not to go back to the border, in order to avoid any surprises from the rear. In this situation receives notice that a corps commanded Marquis Marquis de Torrescusa, went to the aid of Badajoz, deciding to wait and deal with it.

The start of the battle, marked a serious blow to the Portuguese, as the Spanish cavalry attacked quite rightly one of its flanks, causing heavy casualties and disbanded. The Spanish command was given for this partial victory and artillery Portuguese broke ranks with extraordinary wisdom Spanish. Within a few hours, the balance shifted in favor of the Portuguese side, to the extent that the Spaniards had to leave the battlefield, on the opposite margin of the river.
The Portuguese troops continued until Talavera la Real, people burned and looted. While in "this work", were caught two days later by the Spanish Army, which forced them to continue the battle, in this second phase is decanted with the total victory of the Spanish troops.