HISTORY OF THE CITY
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Badajoz was founded by Ibn Marwan " the Galician " in the year 875, in the limits of the Caliphate of Cordova. Practically independent from the authority of the caliph, it was the capital of one of the Gangs mas extensive of the peninsula. On her there were depending all the lands placed to the south of the Douro, the current Estremadura and the Lusitanian territory up to the Atlantic one, from Coimbra for the North to Sines for the South. The born city Moslem, remained under the orbit of the Islam until the year 1230, in which it was conquered by Léon's Alfonso IX.    

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Though abundant prehistoric remains have appeared and of the epoch visigoda, there are not known urban accessions previous to the century X. Invaded the Peninsula in 711, the arabic they conquer the visgodos in Guadalete, where the King Don Rodrigo betrayed by the children of Witiza, loses the life or disappears without leaving track. After this disaster, small stock exchanges of resistance arise in Merida and other cities, but in a little time the invaders control almost the whole territory, except a few small areas placed in the peninsular north.

In the last third of the IXth century, big internal struggles they were shocking the Caliphate of Cordova. For then the city of Merida, it was governed by the family of the Marwan. It was a question of hispanoromanos of Galician or Asturian origin, Spanishes convert to Islam who after the inavasión turned to the Islam. His turbulent and independent character, they caused frequent clashes with Cordova. Ibn Marwan Yunuf " to the Yiliqui " is protesting to the court of the caliph, where it is humiliated and despised. Little later he flees of the city and shelters in Alange, defying the authority califal. The castle is surrounded, but the commander muiladí resists and manages to flee towards the north accompanied of your supporters. His form of life is the guerrilla warfare, being allied according to convenience, with Moslem or Christian groups. A life " of movie ", similar to other historical figures like the Leader Warrior or Geraldo sen Fear.

Before the threat that Marwan's belligerence supposed, the armies natives of Cordoba chase and besiege it constant, producing to him numerous battles and sieges of which the Spanish convert to Islam manages to survive, answering every assault with the corresponding reprisal. Before this situation authorization of the caliph is granted to him in the year 875, to establish himself in the Hill of the Millstone, raising the primitive city located inside she first fortress. Always he enjoyed a wide margin of independence with regard to Cordova, up to the fall of the Caliphate moment in which the Marwan governed a city increasingly prosperous. Badajoz declares your independence when the Slav Sapur, betraying the confidence of the grandson of the founder, proclamose king of Badajoz

With the extinction of the Califatoen, in the year 1022 there was restored the dynasty of the Aftásidas, which he reigned since then in a wide north teritorio limitadoal for the basin of the Douro, in the southern part for Sierra Morena and from the limits of Toledo for this, up to the Atlantic Ocean for the west, including the lands of the center of Portugal, with important populations as Lisbon or Évora. It remained under the constant pressure of Castile, Portugal and of the neighboring gangs.

The invasion of the Almoróvides, called the peninsula before the harassment of the kingdoms of the north, motivated the Christian defeats in Sagrajas and Uclés. The process of reconquest suffered an important setback, at the same time as the gangs lost his independence, Al-Alandalus's union being decreed. The arrival of the almohades in 1146 supposed the renovation and reinforcement of the defenses of Badajoz, getting up towers albarranas in the zones where the rivers The Guadiana and Rivillas rivers were not protecting the population, being that of Espantaperros the element mas representatively of the epoch. The victory christens of the Plain amid mountains of Toulouse in 1212, Sevillla takes the border up to Despeñaperros, resisting during a time lands of Badajoz, Cordova close to the kingdom of Granada

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It is in March, 1230, when the troops of Alfonso IX of León took the city. This one stopped being a border between the north and the south, since the Reconquest advanced unstoppable towards Seville, Cordova and the Algarve. Badajoz like this way happens to be a divide between the kingdoms of Castile and Portugal, turning into a "ink pad" that absorbed the continuous tensions between both monarchies. The successor fights between these kingdoms and the mutual territorial cravings caused frequent wars and invasions. In the year 1336 sites and sieges take place repeatedly on the part of the Portuguese kingdom, which during long time they coveted the possession of Badajoz.
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When Philip II, claims the throne of Portugal, it does of Badajoz the operational headquarters of his army in 1580. In the city there takes place the death the queen Ana of Austria.

In 1589 the sovereign Spanish summons Spanish Parliament in the city of Badajoz. You continue fight against Portugal, originated by the War of Restoration, they turn to the square and his surroundings in battlefield, being the region destroyed in repeated occasions.

The safety lack and a socioeconomic unstable structure, the accession of the nobility prevents in the capital and his surroundings, since it was not desirable that his properties saw exposed to the own rigors of those situations.

During the Spanish Succession war in 1705 an anglo-Portuguese army took the city in name of the claimant the Archduke Carlos.

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medieval

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Between 1810 and 1812, during the War of Independence, the seat was strengthened extraordinarily, in agreement with the lines modern, providing it with bastions, pits and lenses, as well as forts, which were defending her from the exterior, supporting during these years, terrible sieges and taking place in his surroundings, important battles.

 

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Expelled definitively the Frenchmen of Badajoz for allied tropas, the city enjoys a period of peace, which does not take paired an economic progress, since eliminated the Portuguese danger, she remains removed from the power royal and relegated to a simple peripheral city.

In the XVIIIth and IXXth century it changes very little the situation and Badajoz especially and Estremadura in general, they do not manage to take off up to half of the 21st century.

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Happened the 20th century, the Civil war of 1936, led his last warlike episode sadly known by the terrible executions and reprisals, that before and after the capture of the city by the tropas revolted of the general Franco, they happened in her and in his surroundings.

Up to initiated the 50s of last century, the capital was encircled to the limits of the fortification bastion, the exit being exempted towards Madrid and the surroundings of the railway station, afterwards known as slums of San Fernando and holy Isabel and of San Roque. A badly planned expansion of the city, it destroyed the bastion of San Juan and the attached linens of wall, being given I go on to the Avenue of Huelva and something later to that of Colon, breaking the continuity of the fortification abaluartada and eliminating pits, lenses and other defensive structures. This way there is born the Avenue of Holy Sea-coast, limited later by badly so called "highway", which was claiming circunvalar the city for the west. New neighborhoods, between which it stands out Valdepasillas exceeded widely this belt, spreading the population of a majority way towards the west, about Olivenza's road. Parallel other zones developed as Pardaleras, and mentioned of San Roque and San Fernando, who was formed as essential parts of the new city.

Badajoz, she is nowadays the most prosperous population and with major index of growth of his zone of influence. The happy reality of the European Union, she has reserved for her a new role, which overcomes the old men borders and transnational limitations, making augur new and big opportunities. The next tracing of the high-speed train (A.V.E.) and your international station, Caya's Logistic Platform, the line of goods Sines-Badajoz, Conference hall "Manuel Rojas" and the new I.F.E.B.A, are between other incentives, the explosive ones that will allow the takeoff of Badajoz, towards an encouraging future. All this, to the margin of the forceful activity of the commercial sector, which attracts towards the city great number of visitors, eager for his wide and varied offer.

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Despite all expressed previously, some researchers insist on the existence of the city as the population core before the Arab invasion. Since the end of the 15th century and until the beginning of the 20th held the theory that the origin of the city was a Roman town, known as Pax Augusta. It is not, according to historians and the existing documentation, a fact noted while the adjective of Badajoz was always on "Badajoz".

After the conquest of Badajoz to the Kingdom of León, was the Bishop of the city, which the clerics of the time called "Julia diocese", but the existence of the same is not proven before the invasion after the Visigoth defeat of Guadalete. The nearby towns of Emerita Augusta, Pax Julia and Evora were perhaps (while other evidence does not prove it) the cause of this contraversia. However the abundance of remains of Roman villas and burial sites in Badajoz and its term (the Cocosa, lawns, Montesinos, La Picurina, villa and dam of La Crispita, etc.) make sembar some doubts about an important Roman preencia in Badajoz. And after the Romans...

Therefore the Visigoths. The presence of many parts of this historical period attached to the Arab fortification and elsewhere in the city, has not been never sufficiently justified. Cerro de La Muela, whose current level has been the result of the regrowth of the ancient city, on ruins and previous constructions, guardian undoubtedly untold secrets and a historical memory vergopnzosamente buried and forgotten, by many officials who seem to consider that the upwelling in Badajoz historical remains, is an important impediment to the development of the city.

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  Antonio García Candelas     l   Suggestions and impressions

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